• ENGLISH

    Dept. Chairperson: Antoinette Oakes

    To graduate and earn a Regents Diploma: Students MUST earn four (4) English units of credit
    and a grade of 65% or better on the Common Core English Exam.
    To earn a Regents Diploma With Advanced Designation: Students must earn a Regents Exam
    grade of at least 65% on the Common Core English Exam.

    ENGLISH 9R

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course focuses on preparing students to meet Common Core standards for listening, reading,
    writing for information, literary response, and for critical analysis and evaluation. This course is
    designed for students on grade level; the course puts less emphasis on basic skills and more
    emphasis on interpretive skills. The literature units include novel, mythology, poetry, short story,
    research, non-fiction and drama. Writing projects include units in narrative/descriptive, persuasive,
    and expository writing. Skill work in the mechanics of grammar and usage is integrated, as needed,
    into the writing and reading units. Time management and note-taking skills also receive attention
    and vocabulary and spelling units are utilized throughout the year. There are also opportunities in
    listening skills and oral expression. The Elements of Writing series may be the writing text used for
    this course.

    ENGLISH 9AD

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course is designed for students who can learn at a more accelerated pace. The literature units
    include mythology, essay, novel, drama, short story, research, non-fiction and poetry. The thrust is
    towards a deeper analysis and discussion of the literature and the elements of literature. Additional
    literary works are covered (especially in the area of novels). Expository, persuasive and narrative
    writing are covered. The projects in writing are expanded on this level. Skill work in the mechanics
    of grammar and usage is integrated, as needed, into the writing and reading units. Time
    management and note-taking skills also receive attention. Spelling and vocabulary units are covered
    throughout the year. There are more opportunities on this level for oral expression. The level of
    difficulty in the AD course is designed to offer a challenge to capable students. The quantity of
    material studied as well as the level of expectation of assignments is one to two grade levels above
    the standard R course. Students in the AD course are expected to participate more and willingly
    meet this challenge for which a weighted percentage is added to the earned grade. The Elements of
    Writing series may be the writing text used for this course. Students requesting English 9AD must
    have maintained a 90 or better average in Advanced English and must receive a teacher

    recommendation from the current English teacher of the middle school in order to qualify for this
    course.

    ACADEMIC INTERVENTION SERVICES (GRADE 9, 10, 11)

    NO CREDIT
    The non-credit course is designed for students who have been identified as needing additional help
    in reading and writing skills in preparation for the high school English curriculum and the New York
    State Common Core examination in 11 th  grade. Student will be selected based upon multiple
    measures including, class averages, academic performance and/or scores of the 8 th  grade New York
    State Assessment examination and other factors. The focus will be on skill work in reading and
    writing as well as practice on examination test-taking skills. This class meets daily or every other day
    depending on the level and/or need.

    ENGLISH 10R

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course focuses on preparing students to meet Common Core standards for listening, reading,
    writing for information, literary response, and for critical analysis and evaluation. Units of study
    include short story, novel, drama, research, non-fiction and poetry genres. The critical analysis of
    printed and filmed texts is emphasized. Writing includes units in narrative, persuasive,
    argumentative and expository writing emphasized at this level is enhanced by creative writing
    opportunities. Skill work in the mechanics of grammar and usage is integrated, as needed, into the
    writing and reading units. Time management and note-taking skills also receive attention.
    Vocabulary and spelling units are utilized throughout the year. The Elements of Writing series may
    be the writing text used for this course.

    ENGLISH 10AD

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    The difference of the 10AD level is the depth of work, not simply the quantity of work. The course
    provides an enriched opportunity to develop self-awareness and self-expression beyond the literal
    and informational level. Opportunities include extended tasks such as research projects and
    performed responses in dramatic, poetic and public speaking forms. Vocabulary and spelling units
    are utilized throughout the year. Students are evaluated on their ability to work cooperatively on
    group activities designed into most units of study, as well as on their initiative and individual
    performance. The level of difficulty in the AD course is designed to offer a challenge to capable
    students. The quantity of material studied as well as the level of expectation of assignments is one
    to two grade levels above the standard R course. Students in the AD course are expected to
    participate more and willingly meet this challenge for which a weighted percentage is added to the
    earned grade. The Elements of Writing series may be the writing text used for this course. Students
    will take the Common Core Regents for graduation credit. Students requesting this course must

    have maintained an English 9AD class average of 88% or better and must receive a teacher
    recommendation from the current English teacher in order to qualify for this course.

    ENGLISH 11R

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course focuses on preparing students to meet Common Core standards for listening, reading,
    writing for information, understanding, literary response, and for critical analysis and evaluation.
    The course focuses on the refinement of communication skills of reading, writing, listening and
    speaking. Analytic skills are stressed in the study of literature and non-fiction. The literary focus is
    on a variety of literature: essays, short stories, novels, drama and poetry. Teachers design activities
    to foster word recognition, awareness and knowledge in preparation for the PSAT, ACT, SAT and
    Regents exams. Vocabulary and spelling units are utilized throughout the year. Skill work in the
    mechanics of grammar and usage is integrated, as needed, into the writing and reading units. Time
    management and note-taking skills also receive attention. Writing deals with literature essays,
    argumentative essays, and formal compositions, each are important components of the Regents
    exam. Opportunities include extended tasks such as research projects and performed responses in
    dramatic, poetic and public speaking forms. The Elements of Writing series may be the writing text
    used for this course.

    ENGLISH 11AD

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course focuses on preparing students to meet Common Core standards for listening, reading,
    writing for information, understanding, literary response, and for critical analysis and evaluation.
    This course encompasses all of the communicative and analytic skills of English 11R and allows for
    the enrichment of students in the areas of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Again, deeper
    analysis of literature is fostered, and there is more opportunity for creative writing. Writing also
    stresses literature essays and formal composition. Vocabulary and spelling units are utilized
    throughout the year. This allows for more preparation for the College English 101/102 and AP
    programs and further enrichment in the language. The level of difficulty in the AD course is
    designed to offer a challenge to capable students. The quantity of material studied as well as the
    level of expectation of assignments is one to two grade levels above the standard R course. Students
    in the AD course are expected to participate more and willingly meet the challenge for which a
    weighted percentage is added to the earned grade. Opportunities include extended tasks such as
    research projects and performed responses in dramatic, poetic and public speaking forms. The
    Elements of Writing series may be the writing text used for this course. Students requesting this
    course must have maintained an English 10AD class average of 88 or better, an 85 or better on the
    English Regents and must receive a teacher recommendation from the current English teacher in
    order to qualify for this course.

    ENGLISH 12R

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course deals with Shakespearean drama, modern short stories, non-fiction, novels and poetry.
    There is an emphasis on narrative, descriptive, persuasive and expository writing. Texts may
    include: Adventures in Modern Literature, Hamlet, The Bell Jar, Death of a Salesman, The Great
    Gatsby, A Streetcar Named Desire, etc. Listening and speaking skills are incorporated in the course
    and an extended research paper is a course requirement. Skill work in the mechanics of grammar
    and usage is integrated, as needed, into the writing and reading units. Vocabulary and spelling units
    are utilized throughout the year The Elements of Writing series may be the writing text used for this
    course.

    ACADEMIC INTERVENTION SERVICES (GRADE 12)

    NO CREDIT
    Students in this non-credit course will be refining English skills necessary to pass the New York State
    Common Core examination for their graduation requirement. The course is designed for students
    who have not yet passed the New York State Common Core examination in 11 th  grade. Students will
    learn skills to improve reading, writing and listening and will work with preparation test materials to
    practice all task requirements of the state examination. This class meets every other day. Students
    may exit this program after demonstrating proficiency by passing the Common Core examination.

    ENGLISH ELECTIVES

    ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH LITERATURE and COMPOSITION

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course is a college-level course based on deep reading and analysis of selected works and
    expository writing assignments based on those works. Discussion is a major importance, where
    speaking and listening skills are stressed Student discussion is fostered so that the critical thinking
    skills so necessary for the Advanced Placement Examination will be reinforced. Vocabulary and
    spelling units are utilized throughout the year. Practice in both the short answer and essay format
    of the Advanced Placement Examination will be stressed. All students in AP will be expected to sit
    for the AP Examination in May. Valley Central grade and credit will be awarded in June; however,
    students may be eligible for college credit depending on their AP Examination score in July subject
    to the policy of their selected college or university. Students requesting this course must have
    achieved an 85 or better on the English Regents Exam and also maintained an English 11AD class
    average of 88 or better and must receive a teacher recommendation from the current English
    teacher in order to qualify for this course.

    ADVANCED PLACEMENT ENGLISH LANGUAGE and COMPOSITION

    1 UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course is a college level course based on helping students to become skilled writers of prose
    written in a variety of contexts while examining rhetoric. Writings and readings will make students

    aware of a writer’s purpose, audience and genre. This course will help students to prepare to write
    effectively and confidently across disciplines. Students will write both formally and informally to
    gain authority and to learn to take risks in writing. Practice in both the short answer and essay
    format of the Advanced Placement Examination will be stressed. All students in AP will be expected
    to sit the AP Examination in May. Valley Central grade and credit will be awarded in June; however,
    students may be eligible for college credit depending on their AP Examination score in July subject
    to the policy of their selected college or university. Students requesting this course must have
    achieved an 85 or better on an English Regents Exam and also maintained an English 10AD class
    average of 88 or better and must receive a teacher recommendation from the current English
    teacher in order to qualify for this course.

    COLLEGE ENGLISH 101/102

    6 COLLEGE CREDITS / 1 HS CREDIT
    This course emphasizes student practice in expository writing and library skills. Reading and class
    discussion center on the formal and informal essay. The second half of the course emphasizes
    continued student practice in expository writing based on fiction, drama and poetry. Research
    papers required. Students requesting this course must have achieved an 85 or better on the English
    Regents Exam and also maintained an English 11AP class average of 88 or better and must receive a
    teacher recommendation from the current English teacher in order to qualify for this course. Those
    students will receive 3 college credits for EACH course upon successful completion (possible 6
    credits). FEE AND TEXTBOOK PURCHASE REQUIRED

    JOURNALISM

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    Journalism introduces students to the many styles and principles of responsible journalism.
    Students learn several types of news writing including: leads, editorials, features, sports, writing and
    column writing. Students are required to produce, edit and publish the school newspaper. Reading
    quality publications and developing skills in proofreading and editing are stressed. The course
    provides hands-on experience with the world of communications and allows students to work
    under deadline conditions. Students will explore the world of broadcast journalism in addition to
    the coverage of advertising, obituaries, weather and press releases.

    PUBLIC SPEAKING

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course is offered to those students wishing to better participate in public speaking. It will
    provide the necessary training to enable the student to speak in public with positive self-adequacy.
    Emphasis will be on sound research, speech preparation, organization, as well as delivery, voice and
    diction. The course requires active participation and provides excellent preparation for successful
    adult-world communication.

    CREATIVE WRITING

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    This course is designed to motivate students who would like to write fearlessly and with confidence.
    Students will try their hands at poetry, short stories, playwriting and other genres to give each

    student a taste of the world of writing. Students who take this class will set and meet a variety of
    writer’s deadlines. Students will understand the process of seeing their work expand and take shape
    through the study of free writing, clustering, outlining and revising. This class will enhance the
    students’ ability to express and understand their writer’s voice in a clear and descriptive manner.
    They will revise and expand on the materials developed for the purpose of publication and
    performance. Students will explore chosen genres from their portfolios. Students will learn to edit,
    proof, and critically evaluate their work in order to meet requirements for manual and electronic
    submission for publication.

    ELEMENTS OF FILMMAKING

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    In this survey course students learn the basics of screenwriting, production planning, photographic
    composition, camera techniques, lighting design, and digital editing. Most learning is hands-on:
    after each concept is introduced, student gain proficiency with it through a lab exercise (completed
    with a group during class) and then apply it to a creative project that is filmed outside of school and
    then edited on the school's computers. Creative projects may include short films, movie trailers,
    commercials, public service announcements, music videos, and news stories.

    SHAKESPEARE

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    The Shakespeare elective is designed to provide extensive reading and analysis of Shakespeare's
    plays and sonnets. The course is created to stimulate the student’s enjoyment and understanding of
    Shakespeare. Explore the plays of William Shakespeare that you don’t get to read in other classes by
    acting out scenes and watching films. Like to act? Develop your skills! Don’t like to act? No worries!
    Create a visual project or translate a scene into modern English! There is something for everyone in
    this class. As long as you are interested in the plays of William Shakespeare, this is the class for you!

    CONTEMPORARY ISSUES in LITERATURE

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    This is a course for students who want to read compelling literature and discuss how it relates to
    real life. Students will examine contemporary novels, short stories and poetry that express voices
    from various cultures and social backgrounds.


    RACE, IDENTITY, AND JUSTICE: SEEKING COMMON GROUND

    ½ UNIT OF CREDIT
    Over the past several years topics related to race and identity—including Ferguson, the NFL,
    Charlottesville, and immigration—have been in the news. This interdisciplinary course will examine
    the history and literary expression of race and identity in America as a means towards
    understanding why so many of us are confused, frustrated, and divided by this issue. If you have
    questions about race and identity but no place to ask them without fear of feeling ignorant, this is
    the course for you. If racism or prejudice affect you and you want to better understand how they
    work, this is the course for you.
    Topics to be discussed include the psychology of prejudice, the origins and history of racial
    classification, race in popular culture and sports, and the present-day impact of racial ideology on
    law enforcement and other institutions—as well as connections to discrimination with regard to
    religion, ethnicity, gender, gender expression, sexual orientation, and ability. Students will learn
    strategies for thoughtfully discussing controversial topics and for safely responding when
    witnessing or experiencing bias outside of the classroom.