**MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT COURSE DESCRIPTIONS**

**To graduate and earn a Local Diploma:**

Qualifying students with disabilities **MUST** earn three (3) math units of credit and score between 55 and 64 on one of the NYS Math Regents exams. Students will most likely be taking the Algebra 1 Regents exam. Requirements change based upon the year the student entered the ninth grade. Students should contact guidance for more information.

**To graduate and earn a Regents Diploma:**

Students **MUST** earn three (3) math units of credit and a score of 65 or better on one of the NYS Math Regents exams (Algebra 1, Geometry, or Algebra 2). Valley Central students will be required to take the Algebra 1 Regents exam.

**To graduate and earn a Regents Diploma with Advanced Designation:**

Students **MUST** have a score of 65 or better on the Algebra 1 Regents exam AND the Geometry Regents exam AND the Algebra 2 Regents exam.

**College Bound Students:**

Colleges prefer students to have taken 4 years of math in high school. New York State asserts that for students to be college and career ready they should take 4 years of math in high school.

**College Bound Athletes:**

Students planning to attend an NCAA school must choose from an approved list of courses. Please see your guidance counselor for more information.

**ALGEBRA ACADEMIC INTERVENTION SERVICES (AIS) **

**NO CREDIT**

Algebra AIS is offered for the student who has not achieved a score of proficiency on the Algebra 1 Regents exam. This math class is non-credit pass/fail where students meet on either A or B days. The purpose of the class is to give concentrated and individualized targeted instruction directed towards the Algebra 1 Regents exam. All Valley Central students will be required to take the Algebra 1 Regents exam, and **MUST** pass one of the NYS Math Regents exam in order to earn a NYS Regents diploma.

**ALGEBRA R**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course preparing students for the Algebra 1 Regents exam. The topics include quantities and reasoning with equations and their graphs, descriptive statistics, linear and exponential functions, polynomial and quadratic expressions, equations and functions, and a synthesis of modeling with equations and functions. The Algebra 1 Regents Exam will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Geometry or Geometry R. Students must take the Algebra 1 Regents exam in June. Students must pass one NYS Math Regents exam to earn a NYS Regents diploma.

**ALGEBRA L**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is the first year of a two year program preparing students for the Algebra 1 Regents exam. This course will meet for one period every day and an additional period every other day and is designed to give students extra time to strengthen their overall mathematical background as required by academic intervention services. The topics include relationships between quantities and reasoning with equations and their graphs, descriptive statistics, and linear and exponential functions. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Algebra LR.

**ALGEBRA LR**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is the second year of a two year program preparing students for the Algebra 1 Regents exam. The topics include linear and exponential functions, polynomial and quadratic expressions, equations and functions, and a synthesis of modeling with equations and functions. The Algebra 1 Regents exam will be given in January and again at the end of the year for students who did not achieve a passing grade in January or who would like to try to achieve a higher score. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Financial Algebra or Geometry or Geometry R.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra L**. Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**FINANCIAL ALGEBRA**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course designed for students as an option for a third unit of mathematics credit. The course employs algebra, pre-calculus, probability and statistics, calculus and geometry to solve financial problems that occur in everyday life. Real-world problems in investing, credit, banking, auto insurance, mortgages, employment, income taxes, budgeting and planning for retirement are solved by applying the relevant mathematics. Field projects, computer spreadsheets, and graphing calculators are key components of the course.

**Prerequisite: Credits in Algebra L and Algebra LR.** A student who has taken any level of Geometry will **NOT** be allowed to take this course to fulfill their math credit requirement but may take it as an elective credit. Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

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**GEOMETRY**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course for the student who has passed the Algebra 1 Regents. The topics include fundamentals of congruence, analytic proof and constructions, connecting Algebra and Geometry through coordinates, and circles with and without coordinates. A local final exam will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Algebra 2 or Geometry R.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra R OR Credits in Algebra L and Algebra LR.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

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**GEOMETRY R**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course preparing students for the Geometry Regents exam. The topics include congruence, proof and constructions, similarity, proof and trigonometry, connecting Algebra and Geometry through coordinates and circles with and without coordinates. The Geometry Regents exam will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Algebra 2 or Algebra 2 R.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra R, a passing score on the Algebra Regents exam, and teacher recommendation.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**GEOMETRY AD**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course preparing students for the Geometry Regents exam. The topics include congruence, proof and constructions, similarity, proof and trigonometry, connecting Algebra and Geometry through coordinates and circles with and without coordinates. The topics will be more extensively covered and the degree of difficulty of the problems increases from Geometry R. The Geometry Regents will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course with an 88 to move on to Common Core Algebra 2 AD.

**Prerequisite: Grade of 90 in Algebra AD and a passing score on the Common Core Algebra Regents exam.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

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**ALGEBRA 2**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course for the student who has passed Geometry. The topics include rational expressions, rational, irrational and complex numbers, quadratic equations and functions, sequences and series, relations and functions, exponents and exponential functions, logarithms, an introduction to trigonometry, and trigonometric graphs. A cumulative local final exam will be given at the end of the year.

**Prerequisite: Credits in Algebra and Geometry and a passing score on an Algebra Regents exam.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

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**ALGEBRA 2 R**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course preparing students who have passed Geometry R for the Algebra 2 Regents exam. The topics include polynomial, rational, and radical relationships, trigonometric functions, functions, and inferences and conclusions from data. The Algebra 2 Regents exam and will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to Pre-Calculus.

**Prerequisite: Credits in Algebra and Geometry R and passing scores on the Algebra and Geometry Regents exams.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**ALGEBRA 2 AD**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a one year course preparing students for the Algebra 2 Regents exam. The topics include polynomial, rational, and radical relationships, trigonometric functions, functions, and inferences and conclusions from data. The topics will be more extensively covered and the degree of difficulty of the problems increases from Algebra 2 R. The Algebra 2 Regents exam will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course with a grade of 88 or better to move on to College Algebra & Trig and must meet the requirements of SUNY Orange, including a minimum grade on the Regents exam, to qualify to take College Algebra & Trig for SUNY Orange college credit.

**Prerequisite: Grade of 88 in Geometry AD and passing scores on the Algebra Regents exam and the Geometry Regents exam.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

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**PROBABILITY & STATISTICS**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of the persuasiveness of probability and statistics in today’s society and the means to use the concepts and formulas to problem solve. Topics included are data collection techniques, calculating probabilities, data distributions, hypothesis testing, regression and analysis, expected values, conditional probability, binomial and normal distribution, data analysis (random sampling and sampling distribution), and measures of association. Examples may come from analysis of random events, games of chance, and economic cycles. These fundamental concepts of statistical theory with an applied approach is designed to create savvy “statistical consumers”, able to understand, evaluate, and analyze quantitative evidence presented in the media on issues relevant to citizens in our society today. A local final exam will be given at the end of the year. This course is an elective and will not count towards the 3 required credits in mathematics for graduation.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Geometry R OR Algebra 2 (any level).** Extenuating circumstances may be approved by the department chair.

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**INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE**

**½ UNIT OF CREDIT**

This half year course is designed to offer an introduction to computer science. Students will learn the basics of computer programming along with the basics of computer science through the use of the Python programming language. The course content emphasizes finding solutions to complex problems using computational thinking. Students will learn the foundational elements of computer science as well as other key concepts. The course gives a foundation in the tools used in computer science and prepares students for further study in computer science, including AP Computer Science Principles and AP Computer Science A courses. Students taking this course should be enrolled in or passed Algebra I.

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**AP COMPUTER SCIENCE PRINCIPLES**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

The AP Computer Science Principles course is designed to be equivalent to a first-semester introductory college computing course. In this course, students will develop computational thinking skills vital for success across all disciplines, such as using computational tools to analyze and study data and working with large data sets to analyze, visualize, and draw conclusions from trends. The course engages students in the creative aspects of the field by allowing them to develop computational artifacts based on their interests. Students will also develop effective communication and collaboration skills by working individually and collaboratively to solve problems, and will discuss and write about the impacts these solutions could have on their community, society, and the world.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra (Algebra R OR Algebra L and Algebra LR).** A sophomore taking this course must have completed Intro to Computer Technology. Extenuating circumstances may be approved by the department chair.

**AP COMPUTER SCIENCE A**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

AP Computer Science A is an introductory college-level computer science course. Students cultivate their understanding of coding through analyzing, writing, and testing code as they explore concepts like modularity, variables, and control structures. During the course, students will be exposed to the topics of program design and algorithm development, code logic, code implementation, code testing, documentation, and ethical computing.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra and Geometry (Regents level or non-Regents level).** A sophomore taking this course must have completed Intro to Computer Technology. Extenuating circumstances may be approved by the department chair.

**COLLEGE PREP MATH**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a full year course designed for the student who has successfully completed Algebra 2 and who desires instruction which will help prepare the student for college entrance exams in mathematics. The topics include trigonometry and college algebra topics including radicals, solving and graphing systems of equations, quadratics, algebraic fractions, logarithms, and functions. A local final exam will be given at the end of the year.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra 2.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**PRE-CALCULUS**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a full year pre-calculus course. The topics include functions, polynomials, logarithms, conics, and trigonometry. A local final exam will be given at the end of the year.

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra 2 R.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**COLLEGE ALGEBRA & TRIGONOMETRY**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a full year pre-calculus course. The topics include extensive work with functions, transformation of graphs, rational roots of polynomials, finite sequences and series, trigonometry, analytic geometry, factoring methods, conic sections, polar coordinates, and complex numbers. The topics will be covered more extensively, to a greater degree of difficulty, and at a faster pace than in Pre-Calculus. A SUNY Orange final exam will be given at the end of each semester and a local cumulative final exam will be given at the end of the year. Students **MUST** pass this course to move on to AP Calculus AB. To qualify to enroll in College Algebra and College Trig through SUNY Orange students must meet the requirements of SUNY Orange, including a minimum score on the Algebra 2 Regents exam. Those students will receive 3 college credits for EACH course upon successful completion (possible 6 credits).

**Prerequisite: Credit in Algebra 2 AD and passing scores on the Algebra, Geometry and Algebra 2 Regents exams. Students who took Pre-Calculus in their junior year may also enroll in this course in their senior year.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.

**ADVANCED PLACEMENT CALCULUS (AB)**

**1 UNIT OF CREDIT**

This is a full year calculus course. It is equivalent to at least one semester of college calculus. The theoretical and practical topics include limits, continuity, applications of derivatives, such as, related rates, max-min problems and rectilinear motion, and integrals and their applications, such as area under a curve and volume of revolution. Other topics include slope fields, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions. A local final exam will be given at the end of the course and the AP exam may be taken in May. College credit, as determined by each college, may be awarded for this course to those students who pass the AP exam.

**Prerequisite: College Algebra & Trigonometry.** Extenuating circumstances must be approved by the department chair.